|Standardized Citation Style (SCS)
||[Nov. 15th, 2010|04:16 am]
Standardized Citation Style (SCS)|
To make citing easier, let’s just have a standardized citation style. The order of information listed will be the same for every type of thing cited, so it’s easy to remember. If any information is unavailable, simply don’t include it.
Currently, the various citation styles justify their confusing rules with the idea that people can tell what it being cited by the citation format. As more types of materials are created that need to be cited, the attempt to make each type of material look unique becomes more complicated. Wouldn’t it just be easier for everyone using citations if the first thing in any citation listed was the type of material being cited? With that in mind, SCS lists type first.
Name the type of material you are citing, followed by a period.
If it was accessed online and you wish to emphasize this point, simply add Online before the type, except for types that only appear online (Website, Blog). If the type is two or more words long, the first word will be capitalized and all others will be lower case.
Ex: Online article.
All types will be capitalized except e-Journals or other electronic materials where the e is normally left lower case, in which case it will be hyphenated and the second letter will be capitalized.
If you wish to add descriptive information to the type, give the type followed by a colon and the added material, then close with a period. If the type you are citing has a name separate from the title already given for the material (Ex: Journal has the name American Journal of Psychology), put the name in the description area. Capitalize titles in the descriptive area the same way the publisher does.
Ex: DVD: movie.
Ex: Newspaper: New York Times.
Ex: Journal: American Journal of Psychology.
If you have page numbers, volume numbers, or other identifying information, place it here by abbreviating it with the first letter in lower case and a period (Ex: p. for page or pages, v. for volume or volumes, i. for issue or issues, n. for number or numbers). Always use Arabic numerals (never Roman numerals). Nest information from largest to smallest (volume, issue, number, page). For presentations, you may wish to reference a particular slide (Ex: s.); movies may have a particular reel (Ex: r.) or film frame (Ex: f.). Websites may have a particular file; here, specify by file type (Ex: doc, docx, rtf, pdf). Use a period after this descriptive information has been listed with commas separating multiple listings.
Ex: DVD: movie, f. 2-10.
Ex: DVD: documentary, r. 1.
Ex: Journal: American Journal of Psychology, v. 1, i. 3, n. 6, p. 16-35.
Ex: Website: LiveJournal, pdf.
Some type categories are: Book, e-Book, Edited book, Journal article, e-Journal article, Online article, Blog, Website, Webzine, Pamphlet, Presentation, Lecture, DVD, CD, VHS, Cassette, Microfilm, Microfiche, Press release, Online press release, Newspaper article, and Online newspaper article. This list is not comprehensive.
If you are using a type not mentioned here (either because it‘s new or I missed mentioning it), use your best judgment in how to describe it until it can be added to this list.
Note: Article is an all-inclusive term for journal articles, magazine articles, newspaper articles, blogs, webzines, and any other prose written on a specific topic independent of the publication in which it appears.
2. Name of author (if given)
One Author: FirstName Lastname,
Ex: John Smith,
Two Authors: FirstName Lastname and FirstName Lastname,
Ex: John Smith and Jane Smith,
Three or more Authors: FirstName Lastname, et al.,
Ex: John Smith, et al.,
Author wishes to remain anonymous: Anon.,
Note: Author is an all-inclusive term for authors of books, articles, blogs, scripts, lectures, presentations, or any other cited item that was created by someone. Middle names or initials can be included if known. Suffixes like Jr. or III, and prefixes like Dr. or Prof. can be included if the author is known by those additional descriptive terms and/or used them on the cited material.
3. Publication date (if one exists, and as complete as possible)
This is the date the material being cited was published, not the date of your work that is doing the citing.
Date: Day (Numerical) Month (Spelled Out) Year (Numerical 4 digits),
Examples: 1 November 2005, (day 1 digit long)
31 July 2010, (day 2 digits long)
October 1999, (no day provided)
2007, (no day or month provided)
4. Title of material
First words of titles will always be capitalized. All other words will be capitalized in the title except two-letter prepositions and articles a, an, and the in English. Numbers will be written as the author wrote them.
Book Ex: “The Catcher in the Rye,”
Article Ex: “Fuel Efficiency: Get More Bang For Your Buck,”
DVD Ex: “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof,”
CD Ex: “7th Day Songs,”
Presentation Ex: “One More Time For Luck,”
5. Publisher / Producer / Other
If a third party was involved in the production and/or distribution of the material and should be credited, do so here in italics, followed by a period.
Ex: Harvard University Press.
New York Times.
If a specific location to the creation of the material is relevant (such as the city and state of where a publisher or production company is located), place a colon after the publisher / producer / other’s name instead of a period, and place the location information as specific as necessary to identify the location.
If there is no publisher / producer / other, and the location information is still relevant, enter location here in the citation order. After your location information, put a period.
Providing both U.S. or another country’s city and state (or city and province, or city and territory, etc.) is preferred, even when it is obvious what the state is (Ex: New York City, NY). Use postal code two-letter state abbreviations. As it is uniquely both a city and a district, write out Washington D.C. Spell out the territories of the United States, put a comma, then add USA for clarification, as follows:
American Samoa, USA.
Baker Island, USA.
Howland Island, USA.
Jarvis Island, USA.
Johnston Atoll, USA.
Kingman Reef, USA.
Midway Islands, USA.
Navassa Island, USA.
Northern Mariana Islands, USA.
Palmyra Atoll, USA.
Puerto Rico, USA.
Virgin Islands, USA.
Wake Island, USA.
Ex: Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
Ex: Sun Publications: Virgin Islands, USA.
For locations outside of the United States, use established abbreviations only. Spell out names of places when in doubt. Provide as much identifying information as necessary to indicate the location adequately.
Ex: Oxford University Press: Oxford, U.K.
Ex: BBC: London, England.
At this point, whatever citation information you have should be ended with a period.
If you are citing information you have accessed online and have a hyperlink to that information, place it after the period.
If you have visited that hyperlink within one month of the publication date of your work, there is no need to include an “accessed on” date. If it has been longer than a month from the time of your work’s publication date, include an “accessed on” date. For students turning in assignments, consider your due date for the assignment as the publication date for citation purposes.
Do not use any closing punctuation after the hyperlink (or access date if one is used).
Ex: http://www.google.com/ (accessed on 11 November 2009)
You’re done. These simple steps should be sufficient to cite any material.